perennial ryegrass; International Common Names. Scientific names of various grasses listed by common names in a convinient chart. This species is grown as a pasture grass and is also deliberately planted in recreation areas in the temperate regions of Australia. Corrections? Ryegrasses can be annuals or perennials. Lolium multiflorum Lam. Lolium perenne var. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Note that this species can be a weed in winter crops. in Colombia or Kenya, ryegrass is grown above 2400-2500 m alt. Plant Characteristics. Lightly harrow and roll to improve germination. Annual ryegrass is hairless and has bright green, narrow leaves. Lolium perenne var. aristatum . NOTE: Italian ryegrass (annual type) Cultivars of annual type Italian ryegrass are listed separately in the annualryegrass fact sheet NOTE: Hybrid ryegrass (long-lived type) Classed technically as hybrid ryegras… The different kinds have different uses. Native Introduced Native and Introduced. Lolium perenne, common name perennial ryegrass, English ryegrass, winter ryegrass, or ray grass, is a grass from the family Poaceae. Preferred Scientific Name. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The plants have extensive root systems and are useful for erosion control. 1753. Suited to drier margin of ryegrass zone. Lolium multiflorum . Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is regarded as a serious threat to one or more natural vegetation formations i… Sowing/planting rates as single species Pasture: 25-30 kg/ha (diploid cultivars); 20-40 (4n) Lawn: 1-2 kg/100 sqm Parks, rehabilitation or revegetation single species: 75 kg to 100 kg per hectare. Naturalised in all Australian States. Italian ryegrass (biennial type) 1. English: English ryegrass; Italian ryegrass; perennial rye grass; Spanish: ballico perenne; raigras ingles; vallico; French: ivraie vivace; ray-grass anglais; Portuguese: azevem-vivaz; gazao Lolium italicum A. Braun; International Common Names. Typical yields of annual ryegrass are 2 to 6 tons/ac. There's more than one kind of ryegrass; in fact, three different types of grasses contain \"rye\" in their names. is a fungal body or sclerotium often found in many cereal grasses. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). It is found throughout California to about 3300 feet (1000 m), except in deserts and the Great Basin and inhabits agricultural land and other disturbed places. The scientific name for annual or Italian ryegrass is Lolium multiflorum Lamarck (Munz, 1973). The Plants Database includes the following 2 subspecies of Lolium perenne . Duration: Annual Stem Texture: Hairless/Smooth Growth Habit: Bunch grass, Grasses Season: Cool Distribution: 01 - Pineywoods, 02 - Gulf Prairies and Marshes, 03 - Post Oak Savannah, 04 - Blackland Prairies, 05 - Cross Timbers and Prairies, 07 - Edwards Plateau, 08 - Rolling Plains, 09 - High Plains, 10 - Trans-Pecos multiflorum . Ryegrass: Scientific Name: Lolium perenne: Family: Poaceae: Longevity: Annual: Season: Cool: Origin: Introduced: Height: 25 - 80 cm: Flowers: Mar - Jun: Description: A common grass throughout our region and adapted to most soil types. Italian ryegrass and a related species, perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne, are the two most common weedy ryegrasses in California. Annual ryegrass is also called Italian ryegrass and is closely related to perennial ryegrasses. It is often used as a forage grass in winter pasture plantings and seeded in Bermudagrass pastures. Ryegrass Scientific Name. Other Common Name: Annual Rye-grass: Status: Native to the Mediterranean. The scientific name of Italian Ryegrass is the botanical name or formal name. The ergot of ryegrass (Lolium spp.) Weed Tech 21: 477–482 (2006).doi 10.1614/WT-06-168.1", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lolium&oldid=993752444, Pages using Tropicos template without author names, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 December 2020, at 08:26. Like many cool-sea… Lolium contains some species which are important grasses for lawns, and as pasture and for grazing and hay for livestock, being a highly nutritious stock feed. Italian ryegrass. The common name of this plant in Spanish is Lolium perenne. Lolium is native to Europe, Asia and northern Africa, as well as being cultivated and naturalized in Australia, the Americas, and various oceanic islands. It consists of a flowering culm with alternate leaves about 1-3' tall. The plants are unrelated to cereal rye (Secale cereale). Italian ryegrass; Other Scientific Names. Plant Characteristics. Ryegrasses are also used in soil erosion control programs. Like many cool-season grasses of the Poaceae, it harbors a symbiotic fungal endophyte, either Epichloë or its close relative Neotyphodium, both of which are members of the fungal family Clavicipitaceae. The inflorescence (flowering stems) are flat and up to 300mm in length. Synonyms (former Scientific Names): Lolium perenne ssp. Scientific Name Lolium perenne ssp. Ryegrass, (genus Lolium), genus of about 10 species of grass in the family Poaceae. Legumes: White Clover, Red and Persian clovers. A number of species are grown as forage and lawn grasses in temperate Eurasia and Africa, and both perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and annual ryegrass (L. multiflorum) are important constituents of pasture and lawn-seed mixtures used around the world. [13][14] Glyphosate-resistant Lolium has been reported from Mississippi in 2006. Lolium perenne (Table 1) Lolium x boucheanumKunth (Table 2) - Refer Hybrid ryegrass fact sheet for details re description etc. Name: Ryegrass - Annual (Lolium rigidum) Description: Annual self-regenerating aggressive winter-spring growing ryegrass. For Wimmera ryegrass, the scientific name is Lolium rigidum … Species Plantarum 1: 83, https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/resources/iwmhub/common-weeds-of-cropping/annual-ryegrass, "Nandula VK, Poston DH, Eubank TW, Koger CH and Reddy KN, Differential response to glyphosate in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) populations from Mississippi. It is the principal grazing grass in New Zealand where some 10 million kilograms of certified seed are produced every year. The leaves are shiny, especially on the back of the blade. The common name of this plant in Spanish is raigrás italiano. Scientific Name: Perennial Lolium Domain: Eukaryota Kingdom: Plantae; Phylum: Spermatophyta Subphylum: Angiosperms Class: Monocotyledonae How to Plant Ryegrass. Annual Ryegrass and Perennial ryegrass are very important for forage production or livestock production. Scientific name is the name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). Festuca perennis is the legitimate scientific name for annual ryegrass. Darnel (L. temulentum), also known as poison ryegrass or tare, is considered a noxious weed in many areas. Habit. Stems are 12 to 40 inches tall and pale green to yellowish. Modern winnowing techniques now separate the seed from rye seed, but in earlier times contaminated rye flour was a health hazard. It has a wide ligule, long auricles and the emerging leaf is folded. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is regarded as an environmental weed in New South Wales, Victoria and Western Australia. Italicum . The main purpose of having a scientific name is to have a same name accepted and used worldwide. [10][11], Some species, particularly L. temulentum, are weeds which can have a severe impact on the production of wheat and other crops. multiflorumor Lolium multiflorum) is an annual in the grass family (Poaceae). It's easy to be fooled, so let's distinguish between the three types. Lolium perenne ssp. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/plant/ryegrass, The Spruce - Annual Ryegrass Plant Information, United States Department of Agriculture - Ryegrass, rye grass - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The main purpose of having a scientific name is to have a same name accepted and used worldwide. This clump forming grass spreads by seed and has a fibrous root system. Phantom Annual Ryegrass. Updates? As the name suggests, annual ryegrass is a short-lived grass used to provide quick color, short-term erosion control or temporary stability for a single season. Sow at 20-25kg/ha alone or 5-15kg/ha as part of a mix. Leaves are long and narrow, without hairs, are ribbed on the upper surface and have a shiny lower surface. Cereal ryegrass germinates at temperatures as low as 34° F, is also drought-resistant, and flourishes in light soils, where most ryegrasses have problems growing. (1779) Preferred Common Name. Annual ryegrass is used mainly for pastures. Subordinate Taxa. In the Gulf Coast regions, reason productivity can be expected from November to May. Annual ryegrass can be grazed when plants reach an approximate height of 6-8 inches. Common Name: Red Clover Scientific Name: Trifolium pratense Family: Fabaceae The plant is often infected with a poisonous fungus (Neotyphodium species) that can be dangerous to grazing animals. English: annual ryegrass; westerwold ryegrass; Spanish: ballico de Italia; … Native to Annual ryegrass is native to Southern Europe while perennial ryegrass is native to Europe, Asia, and northern Africa. The primary species found worldwide and used both for lawns and as a forage crop is perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Spikel… There is a large range of cultivars. multiflorum. [12] Ryegrass pollen is also one of the major causes of hay fever. Lolium perenne L. Preferred Common Name. Common Name: Annual Ryegrass Scientific Name: Lolium multiflorum Family: Poaceae Cool-Season Grass. Scientific Name and Common Name; Kingdom: Plantae – Plants Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants Class ... Scientific Name Lolium multiflorum. It is native to Europe, Asia and northern Africa, but is widely cultivated and naturalised around the world. Tennis courts, including those at the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club, the venue for Wimbledon, are planted with ryegrass. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. There is a large range of cultivars. Sowing/planting rates in mixtures 15-25 kg/ha (diploid cultivars); 20-40 (4n). Also grown in subtropical areas of Australia, S America and S Africa; in the tropics, ryegrass is grown to a limited extent at high altitudes, e.g. Grasses: Hybrid ryegrass. Several former Lolium species now regarded as part of other genera: Castellia, Enteropogon, × Festulolium, Hainardia, Lepturus, Melica, and Vulpia. Preferred Scientific Name. The tufted plants reach about 0.3 to 1 metre (1 to 3.3 feet) tall and have tough dark green leaves. Annual ryegrass (L. rigidum) is one of the most serious and costly weeds of cropping systems in southern Australia, and herbicide resistance is a frequent problem. Omissions? Suitable for oversowing into an established stand. It often becomes naturalised in agricultural areas, along roadsides and near habitation, but also invades a wide variety of natural habitats. The ergot body drops to the ground with the seed, lies dormant through the winter and produces millions of spores in the spring. [3][4] It is often called ryegrass, but this term is sometimes used to refer to grasses in other genera. It is a purplish black, banana-shaped, 0.25- to 0.75-inchlong body replacing a grain in the seed head. Sowing Rate: 25-30 kg/ha Blend Rate: 5-15 kg/ha. Tetraploid annual type; Phantom is an annual tetraploid ryegrass selected for maximum dry matter production during winter and spring. Plant Description: Annual grass, up to 90 cm tall and forming tussocky clumps. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. [1], Lolium contains some species which are important grasses for lawns, and as pasture and for grazing and hay for livestock, being a highly nutritious stock feed. The scientific name of Perennial Ryegrass is the botanical name or formal name. Lolium is a genus of tufted grasses in the bluegrass subfamily of the grass family. Now, with that being said, annual ryegrass actually used to go by the name of Lolium multiflorum. The most important cultivated temperate grasses. Lower stems and nodes are often purplish or reddish. They are characterized by bunch-like growth habits. Ryegrass should not be confused with rye, which is a grain crop. Ryegrasses are naturally diploid, with 2n=14, and are closely related to the fescues (Festuca).[5][6][7][8]. Very strong cool season growth and nutritive value Hybrid ryegrass (short-lived type) 1. Annual and Italian ryegrass These two ryegrass species are described together because they are used in similar situations, for their fast establishment and high winter - early spr… Lolium perenne L. – perennial ryegrass. Often sown in mixtures with white clover. Italian ryegrass and perennial ryegrass can hybridize, result… Scientific name — Secale Cereale, cereal ryegrass is noted for its late fall to early spring nutrient scavenging and grazing potential, and is taller and quicker-growing than wheat. A number of species are grown as forage and lawn grasses in temperate Eurasia and Africa, and both perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and annual ryegrass (L. multiflorum) are important constituents of … The primary species found worldwide and used for both lawns and as a forage crop is perennial ryegrass(Lolium perenne). Ryegrass, (genus Lolium), genus of about 10 species of grass in the family Poaceae. Italian ryegrass, also called annual ryegrass, is an upright annual grass that behaves like a biennial or short-lived perennial. Both names essentially mean the same thing, and there really isn’t that much more to say about the name. It is the principal grazing grass in New Zealand where some 10 million kilograms of certified seed are produced every year. Annual ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. Developed to combine strengths of perennialand Italian ryegrasses, particularly increased cool season growth and increased nutritive value (eg water soluble carbohydrate). It grows vigorously in winter and early spring. Sow into bared ground if direct drilling. Ryegrass is ideally sown in late summer or spring. Lolium multiflorum is the scientific name for annual ryegrass while Lolium perenne is the scientific name for the perennial ryegrass. Diploid ryegrass has a relatively small seed compared to tetraploid ryegrass and may be sown at a lighter rate. Italian Rye Grass Lolium multiflorum Grass family (Poaceae) Description: This grass is usually an annual, although sometimes it is a biennial or short-lived perennial. The scientific name of Perennial ryegrass is Lolium Perenne, and the scientific name of annual ryegrass is Lolium Multiflorum. Ryegrasses are also used in soil erosion control programs. Scientific name is the name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). The flower spikelets grow in the angles of a zigzag rachis (flower stem). Common Name: Crimson Clover Scientific Name: Trifolium incarnatum Family: Fabaceae Cool-Season Legumes. Annual ryegrass toxicity, ergot and herbicide resistance can be a problem with this species. In the northern part of the state, productivity is seen from mid-February to May. [15], World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, "Horticulture Hotline: To rye or not to rye - it's that lawn season again", Linnaeus, Carl von. The culm is pale green, terete, glabrous, and unbranched. The base (below ground) is often reddish purple in colour and seedlings exude a clear sap when crushed.Mature plants are erect and up to 900 millimetres (mm) in height. Ryegrass varies from the most persistent (perennial ryegrass) to the least persistent (annual ryegrass) and can be broadly categorised by how long they live or persist. Annual - Less than one year Italian - 1-2 years Short rotation - 2-5 years Perennial- 5 years 1. multiflorum ← → Other Common Names: annual ryegrass. Key Features. 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